Coffee consumption and CVD
One prospective study (n=18 609) showed that heavy coffee drinking (≥2 cups/day) in CVD patients with grade 2 and 3 hypertension was associated with 2 times higher mortality rate than in non-coffee drinkers. However, no significant changes were seen in CVD patients with high-normal blood pressure (BP) and grade 1 hypertension. In addition, drinking 1 cup of coffee per day did not show an increase in CVD mortality, regardless of the severity of hypertension. Teramoto et al. (2022).
In contrast, another cross-sectional study (n=462) showed that patients with hypertension who consumed up to 2.5 cups of coffee per day even had a beneficial effect on their health. For example, the study showed positive improvements in endothelial and vascular function. Yamaji et al. (2022).
Another study (n=1567) also noted that the incidence of mortality in CVD patients who consumed at least 1 cup of coffee per day was slightly lower than in non-coffee drinkers. However, the data did not show a significant difference. Torres-Collado et al. (2021).
This conflicting data indicate that the amount of safe coffee consumption is highly dependent on each individual case. The effect of caffeine on one's health can be influenced by such factors as the severity of health condition, caffeine tolerance, age, physical activity, and many others. Thus, it is very important to consult with the healthcare professional and address each case individually.
Green/black tea consumption and CVD
Results of the prospective study conducted by Teramoto et al. (2022) (n=18 609) revealed that consumption of green tea did not increase the risk of CVD mortality across any blood pressure category.
Another clinical comparative study (n=21) showed that CVD patients who consumed 3 cups of green tea per day had reduced serum triglycerides, total lipids, and LDL cholesterol levels. Khalid et al. (2021)
One more prospective study from Teramoto et al. (2021) (n=46 213) found that green tea consumption can even be beneficial for stroke or myocardial infarction (MI) survivors. Drinking 1-2 cups of green tea per day showed a lower incidence of all-cause mortality in patients with a history of stroke or MI than in non-drinkers. Also, due to the high polyphenol abundance in green tea, it can contribute to recovery after stroke.
Another prospective cohort study conducted in the UK (n= 498 043) found that drinking 2 or more cups of black tea per day was associated with a slightly lower risk of mortality from all CVD, ischemic heart disease, and stroke. Inoue-Choi et al. (2022).
The results show that green and black tea can be a safe addition to the patients’ with CVD diet and even have positive effects on one's health. However, the amount consumed should be in moderation as both beverages contain caffeine, and consumed in large amounts could affect health negatively. It is always best to consult with your healthcare professional to discuss your individual situation.